Hours after being recalled for the one Twenty20 and five one-day internationals, the 41-year-old said he would play only the T20 and one ODI.
"I invited you to announce my decision to end my international career of more than 20 years," Jayasuriya told reporters in Colombo.
"I consider it a privilege to have represented Sri Lanka."
He added: "The selectors picked me for the whole series but it was my personal decision to retire midway."
Jayasuriya, who made his ODI debut in 1989 and has played 444 matches, was originally included in a 16-man squad, despite making his last ODI appearance in December 2009, while he played his last Twenty20 match in May 2010.
He was not included in Sri Lanka's World Cup squad and failed to secure a contract with a franchise in this year's Indian Premier League, leading many to believe he would not play international cricket again.
Jayasuriya's one-day international record is impressive - only Sachin Tendulkar has scored more runs in ODIs than his 13,428, while he has taken 322 wickets with his left-arm spin.
Meanwhile, opener Upul Tharanga is unavailable as he prepares to face a disciplinary panel following reports that he failed a drugs test during the World Cup.
Captain Tillakaratne Dilshan is a fitness doubt and must sit out the final match of the Test series with a fractured thumb but he is in the squad as expected.
While predecessor Kumar Sangakkara will lead the side in the third Test at the Rose Bowl, left-hander Thilina Kandamby has been installed as Dilshan's one-day understudy.
All-rounder Angelo Mathews will be selected subject to fitness, while the side will be buoyed by the return of world-class paceman Lasith Malinga, who has retired from Tests.
Test players Thilan Samaraweera, Farveez Maharoof, Chanaka Welegedara and Tharanga Paranavitana have not been asked to stay on for the limited-overs matches.
The limited-over series begins on 25 June with a Twenty20 match and ends on 9 July with the fifth one-day international.
Sri Lanka one-day squad: T Dilshan (capt), T Kandamby, K Sangakkara, M Jayawardene, D Chandimal, J Mendis, D Karunaratne, T Perera, Malinga, N Kulasekera, S Lakmal, D Fernando, S Randiv, A Mendis, A Mathews, S Jayasuriya.
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